Arrow functions are a new ES6 syntax for writing JavaScript function expressions. The shorter syntax saves time, as well as simplifying the function scope.

What are arrow functions?

An arrow function expression is a more concise syntax for writing function expressions using a “fat arrow” token (=>).

The basic syntax

Below is a basic example of an arrow function:

// ES5 syntax
var multiply = function(x, y) {
  return x * y;
};

// ES6 arrow function
var multiply = (x, y) => { return x * y; };

// Or even simpler
var multiply = (x, y) => x * y;    

You no longer need the function and return keywords, or even the curly brackets.

A simplified this

Before arrow functions, new functions defined their own this value. To use this inside a traditional function expression, we have to write a workaround like so:

// ES5 syntax
function Person() {
  // we assign `this` to `self` so we can use it later
  var self = this;
  self.age = 0;

  setInterval(function growUp() {
    // `self` refers to the expected object
    self.age++;
  }, 1000);
}

An arrow function doesn’t define it’s own this value, it inherits this from the enclosing function:

// ES6 syntax
function Person(){
  this.age = 0;

  setInterval(() => {
    // `this` now refers to the Person object, brilliant!
    this.age++;
  }, 1000);
}

var p = new Person();

Further Reading

MDN link